The project ExternE = Externalities of Energy launched in 1991, financed by DG Research within the Joule programme. The main scope at this time has been the airborne pollutants from power plants and the development of the impact pathway approach.

Follow-up projects of this first ExternE phase have been going on up to now. There main goals have been on the one hand improving and extending the methodology and incorporating new knowledge, on the other hand extending the field of applications, such as heat production, transport, and industrial activities.

Thus, the whole ExternE study is in fact the result of more than 20 research projects conducted in the past 10 years. Researchers from all EU Members States have taken part. The Commission contributed EUR 10 million.

The main organisations and leading developers of this approach are shown in the following - with links to their website and to a collection of publications related to the ExternE study and further applications of this methodology.

Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER)

University of Stuttgart, Germany

IER Publications on External Costs

Centre d´Énergétique - Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines / ARMINES

Paris, France

Department of Economics and International Development

University of Bath, Bath, Great Britain

Institute of Occupational Medicine

Edinburgh, Scotland

Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek NV (VITO)

Mol, Belgium

AEA Technology (formerly ETSU)

Didcot, United Kingdom

Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (ITE)

Cumbria, United Kingdom

Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT)

Madrid, Spain

Centre d'étude sur l'Évaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucléaire (CEPN)

Fontenay-aux-Roses, France

Swedish Corrosion Institute (SCI)

Stockholm, Sweden

Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken (IVM)

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Beside these main organisations listed several other teams have participated, especially during the National Implementation phase.